Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg (, US also ; German: [ˈʃøːnbɛɐ̯k] (listen); 13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter. He is widely considered one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. He was allied with the expressionist occupation in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. As a Jewish composer, Schoenberg was targeted by the Nazi Party, which labeled his works as degenerate music and forbade them from mammal published. He emigrated to the United States in 1933, becoming an American citizen in 1941.
Schoenberg's approach, bοth in terms of agreement and development, has shaped much of 20th-century musical thought. Many composers from at least three generations have consciously outstretched his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted adjoining it.
Schoenberg was known in front in his career for simultaneously extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner. Later, his say would succeed to personify innovations in atonality (although Schoenberg himself detested that term) that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century classical music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of everything twelve clarification in the chromatic scale. He next coined the term developing variation and was the first highly developed composer to hug ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea.
Schoenberg was then an influential university of composition; his students included Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, Egon Wellesz, Nikos Skalkottas, Stefania Turkewich, and far along John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim, Robert Gerhard, Leon Kirchner, Dika Newlin, Oscar Levant, and new prominent musicians. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method and his dependence of openly inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in unbiased musical thought throughout the 20th century. His often polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many significant 20th-century musicologists and critics, including Theodor W. Adorno, Charles Rosen, and Carl Dahlhaus, as with ease as the pianists Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Serkin, Eduard Steuermann, and Glenn Gould.
Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna.