Nancy Spero (August 24, 1926 – October 18, 2009) was an American visual artist. Born in Cleveland, Ohio, Spero lived for much of her enthusiasm in New York City. She married and collaborated with artist Leon Golub. As both performer and activist, Nancy Spero had a career that spanned fifty years. She is known for her continuous fascination with contemporary political, social, and cultural concerns. Spero chronicled wars and apocalyptic insult as without difficulty as articulating visions of ecstatic rebirth and the celebratory cycles of life. Her obscure network of whole and individual voices was a catalyst for the instigation of her symbolic lexicon representing women from prehistory to the gift in such epic-scale paintings and collage on paper as Torture of Women (1976), Notes in Time upon Women (1979) and The First Language (1981). In 2010, Notes in Time was posthumously reanimated as a digital scroll in the online magazine Triple Canopy. Spero has had a number of retrospective exhibitions at major museums.